Research on Virtual Atelier System by Java
Thought & Abstract
revised on 28 Apr. 1998 (since Tues. 23 Sept. 1997)
Okinori Taniguchi ( Home Page )
【Analysis of Discourse in Design Studio according to dialogue game rules by Lauri Carlson】
Lauri Carlson: Dialogue Games An approach to Discourse Analysis, D. Reidel Pub. Co., 1985
1. The purpose of analysis is to examine the feasibility of developing a system to turn out points indicated by D. Schoen without him.
2. The problem of the discourse analysis is to explain what is coherent (i.e., well-formed) discourse. (Carlson xiv)
3. The fundamental unit of description of discourse is a theoretical construct called a dialogue game. (Carlson xiv)
4. This construct admits the following characterization of well-formedness of discourse:
A discourse is coherent if it can be extended into a well-formed dialogue game. (Carlson xiv)
【Discourse in Design Studio from 'Educating the Reflective Practitioner'(p.127-132) by D. Schoen】
5. Two players, Judith(student) and Northover(instructor or coach)
6. The dialogue game explication of the notion of relevance is in essence "utility relative to the dialogue aims of the participants of the dialogue. (Carlson p.46)
7. A rational player is by definition one who follows his optimal strategy (or strategies) - i.e., those which (according to the theory) most effectively further his aims. This means the rational dialogue player makes only relevant moves. (Carlson p.46)
【Structure of Dialogue】(Chap. 5 Sect. 1)(Carlson p.66-67)
8. Topic centered
One has to allow for topic change in real life dialogue.: current topic may be dropped and another picked up in mid dialogue; challenges may be ignored, and whole new topics introduced.
The move-countermove structure of a dialogue does not have to coincide with the linear order of moves: these are two independent does orders of structure.
9. Multiple antecedency
Phenomenon of multiple antecedency is quite common.
Inferences often depend on multiple premises.
A reply represents an alternative answer to a previously expressed or understood topical question - thus it serves two purposes at the same time, being a correction or confirmation of the answer it surpasses and an answer to the topical question.
10. Surface complexity
Dialogue moves often are not addressed to any of the actually expressed preceding moves in a dialogue, but to some related implicit assumptions held by some participant or other, or inferred from their assumptions.
There is not likely to be any concept of well-formedness of a sequence of explicit moves in a dialogue in abstraction of the whole description of the implicit game situation as we have been in the process of constructing it.
The use of subdialogues to do the work of individual moves.
For instance, when one invites one's interlocutor to guess as an answer to his question instead of giving a
straightforward answer, one is making a guessing subdialogue do duty for a simple application of (D. answer).
Indices (or parameters) of a move (Carlson p.68)
( i ) The author of the move
( ii ) The addressee(s) of the move
( iii ) The audience of the move
( iv ) The sentence of the move
( v ) The game rule(s) which justify the move
( vi ) The premises of the move
( vii ) The dialogue(s) the move is in
(3) A says to B in the presence of C that S as an answer to S' in the dialogue d.
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)
Judith begins the dialogue with a comment on her plans for siting the school.
(1) I haven't decided yet whether it's going to be sited right here or right here-
(2) I have the feeling it's going to be here and I'm going to make it level.
(3) But it works as far as southern orientation-
(4) -being far enough from here so I don't get drainage problems,
(D. explain) to (3)
(D. infer) to the former half of (4)
When a player has put forward a sentence, he may infer another sentence from it.
Inferential moves are often marked as such by various markers of inferential tie (e.g., then, so, therefore, hence).(p.62)
(5) being near enough to this flat area so I can set up playgrounds....
(6) Do you have this to a large scale somewhere?
(7) Not right now, no.
(8) So you don't have it on a site plan at all!
(9) No, that didn't seem necessary, because it will be flat.
(10) We've talked about the whole notion of progressive and experimental schools,
(11) and I've stayed with this decagon shape because it really is appropriate for the number of
classrooms I need....
(12) Also you have fewer windows and less surface area, so that I am conserving energy.
(14) ..the main entrance would be over here.
(15) ..when you walk in, there are administration and health offices-
(16) - there is this long lobby for exhibits -
(17) -- this leads through to the gym -
(18) -- I'm going to put seating in here and a stage here.
(19) Here is a ramp which spirals up.
(20) The classrooms begin here,
(21) and every portion of the decagon goes up two feet....
(22) I took an acoustics class last term,
(23) and I'm designing this so that it will be very nice acoustically.
(24) If I have some feature on which to make a decision, then I'm OK!
(25) Where is the next floor plan?
(26) I've not thought it necessary to make one.
(27) I put "art and cafeteria" on the main level.
(28) Do you think that is a good idea?
(29) That is possible, I guess.
(30) I ask about level change and circulation.
(31) Most people will use the ramp.
(32) Why do you want this stepping up?
(33) Well, when I visited open schools, the one thing they complained about was the warehouse quality --- of being able to see for miles.
(34) It would visually and acoustically break up the volume.
(35) I think you have got to really discipline yourself to draw it up to scale and draw a section through it ---
(36) let's just assume that these ramps do work, that access ---
(37) if so, this ramp will cut off the views to and from the library.
(38) You cannot really tell whether the ramp solution to circulation will work or whether you have solved the problem of warehouse quality until you draw it to scale and in section.
(39) And you must accept the discipline of doing it.
(41) this ramp is really just a porch.
(43) but it has a thickness which must be considered.
(44) It is difficult to read,
(45) you really need a section.
(47) I need a model.
(49) a section will really be sufficient.
(50) But do you understand it even if it is poorly drawn?
(51) Why was the gym left out of the whole scheme?
(52) You are not really designing at all.
(53) You are simply having "ideas" and putting them down on paper.
(54) The moves you make have consequences that are testable,
(55) but you must draw to scale and in section in order to test them.
(56) The whole process of designing is lost to you because you will not do these things.
(57) Once you are there, the whole thing is at the same level.
(58) No, it's not,
(59) because there is a level change here.
(60) OK, you're right.
(61) Don't you feel there were other rooms that didn't fit also --- rooms that needed to define their own shape?
(62) Well, I don't find the system that restrictive.
(63) It is true of the classrooms,
(64) I won't argue,
(65) but what about other spaces?
(66) You say everything is possible
(67) but don't give reasons.
(69) it's possible ---
(70) it works,
(71) it really does.
(72) What I need to know is what you feel about the scheme.
(73) Is it too complex?
(74) --- I think it's fairly simple as a school.
(75) Where is the next floor plan?
(76) At what elevation is that?
(77) What is the main circulation system?
(78) How do you get from here to there?
(79) So you don't have it on a site plan at all!
(80) I think you have got to really discipline yourself to draw it up to scale.
(81) But do you understand it even if it is poorly drawn?
(82) Why was the gym left out of the whole schema?
(83) I'm not saying that you should be discouraged but that you should do more detailed work ---
(84) the reason I can't give strong opinions is that I honestly can't feel what it will look like yet.